Developmental Chinese: Elementary Chinese (Two) (PDF Ebook)

Publisher: Beijing Language and Culture University Press

ISBN: 7561916493/H•06097

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Developmental Chinese: Elementary Chinese (Two)

发展汉语—初级汉语(下)

作者: 徐桂梅,陈满华

author: Xu Guimei,Chen Manhua

出版社:北京语言文化大学出版社

publishing house: BEIJING LANGUAGE & CULTURE UNIVERSITY PRESS

版次:2006年7月第1次出版

number of edition: first edition in March 2006

版次:2006年7月第1次出版

number of print: first print in March 2006

页数:303页

Number of pages : 303 pages

字数:358千字

wordage (thousand words): 358 thousand words

开本:787×1092毫米 1/16

format: 787×1092mm 1/16

ISBN: 7561916493/H·06097

本书使用简体汉字

This book uses simplified Chinese character

生词表有拼音注释

with Pin Yin annotation in the new words list

本书适合初级水平者使用

this book is suitable for the beginner

《发展汉语》总前言

一、编写背景

现有的长期进修教材数量和种类不少,但系列配套的主干教材不多。经过认真研究,中国人民大学对外语言文化学院决定组织编写一套对外汉语长期进修教材——《发展汉语》。

二、编写过程

历时两年多的教材编写工作是在学院的统一领导下进行的。为保证教材的编写质量,学院成立了教材编写委员会,制定编写计划,负责日常的编写组织工作。在编写之初,学院邀请有关专家就教材编写的理论和实践进行学术讲座,组织教材编写人员阅读有关文献,分析相关教材,充实教材编写的理论知识,广泛收集编写材料。教材编委会成员分工负责同一系列初、中、高纵向的联系和不同系列横向的协调。初稿完成后,在大纲的约束下,同一系列不同层次纵向之间进一步相互校改、不同系列同一层次横向之间进一步相互校正。先期完成的不少教材还经过了试用和修改。

三、教材体制

《发展汉语》系列配套教材包括《初级汉语》、《中级汉语》、《高级汉语》,《初级汉语口语》、《中级汉语口语》、《高级汉语口语》,《初级汉语听力》、《中级汉语听力》、《高级汉语听力》,《中级汉语阅读》、《高级汉语阅读》,《中级汉语写作》、《高级汉语写作》,共13种,每种均分为上、下两册,共26本。每本教材均以一个学期为一个使用周期。除阅读和写作教材只分中、高两个层级外,其余各类教材均从零起点开始,分为初、中、高三个层次。

四、使用对象

本套教材是专为来华学习汉语的长期进修生编写的,基本上可以满

足初(含零起点)、中、高各层次听、说、读、写各主干课程的教学需要。

其中,中高级教材也可供汉语言专业本科生教学选用。

五、教学目标

本套教材的教学目标是,通过汉语知识及其相关文化知识的教学和听、说、读、写各项语言技能的训练,逐步培养和提高学习者运用汉语进行交际的能力。为更好地实现这一总体目标、提高教学效率,所编教材力求做到好教、易学、实用、有趣。

六、编写原则

为实现教材编写的总体目标,本套教材确定如下编写原则:

(1)遵循语言规律、语言教学规律和语言学习规律。广泛吸收语言本体研究、语言教学研究和语言习得研究等方面的成果。

(2)语言的结构规律和语言的交际功能并重,同时兼顾相关文化内容的教学。广泛吸收各种教学理论和教学法流派的长处。

(3)遵循教材编写的常规原则:由易到难、急用先学、循序渐进、重复再现;遵循第二语言教材编写的通用原则:针对性、科学性。实用性、趣味性。为此,编写过程采取如下一些主要措施:注重教材定位的准确性,利用教学大纲和水平大纲的指导和约束,教学内容兼顾学习者当前学习生活和未来工作需要,增强内容的百科知识性和哲理思辨性,注重题材、体裁和语体风格多样化,确立文化的多元和包容以及沟通和理解的观念,等等。

(4)遵循以学习者为中心的原则,一切以有利于更快、更好地提高学习者的语言运用能力为第一要务。为此,教材的结构设计、内容选择、注释和说明、习题的设计、课文的长短等等,都遵循从宏观到微观的原则,力求时时处处站在学习者的角度,用学习者的眼光来衡量和取舍。

(5)继承和发展相结合的原则。要求教材设计和编写从理论到实践、从体例编创到各环节的组织和安排,都要考虑它跟以往教材的联系与区别,也就是继承和发展的问题。充分吸收以往教材编写的成功经验,认真考虑所编教材整体和局部的创新。

《发展汉语》使用建议

对外汉语长期进修教材《发展汉语》共26本,基本上可以满足初(含零起点)、中、高各层次听、说、读、写各主干课程的教学需要。其中,中、高级教材也可供汉语言专业本科生教学选用。《发展汉语》系列配套教材中的每册(上册或下册)可供一学期使用,上、下册合起来可供一学年使用。

使用对象

初级汉语、初级汉语口语、初级汉语听力:掌握1000单词或零起点的进修生

中级汉语、中级汉语口语、中级汉语听力、中级汉语阅读、中级汉语写作:掌握2500单词或本科一年级的进修生(HSK3~5级)

高级汉语、高级汉语口语、高级汉语听力、高级汉语阅读、高级汉语写作:掌握4000单词或本科二、三年级的进修生(HSK6~8级)

ELEMENTARY CHINESE PREFACE

Elementary Chinese is a set of textbooks intended for beginners of Chinese as a foreign language. The set contains two volumes to be completed in one year.

I. The compiling principles

1. The textbooks are designed with a focus on fundamental knowledge of the Chinese language and comprehensive language skills. Learners are to recognize 2,000 commonly used words, to master fundamental grammar and to be able to communicate with people with the acquired language skills after completion of the study of the textbooks.

2. In order to combine the element of learning with that of entertainment in designing the books, a variety of materials showing the characteristics of the times are supplied in the texts of the book. Some of the texts are written by the compilers and the others are selected from newspapers, magazines and compositions of students.

3. The difficulty of the language is carefully controlled in the books. The compiling of the books is under the guidance of The Syllabus of Chinese Vocabulary and Chinese Characters (revised edition, 2001, Economic Science Press), The Criteria of Chinese Proficiency and the Syllabus of Chinese Grammar (1996, Higher Education Press) and The Teaching Syllabus of Chinese for Foreign Students in Chinese Universities (for long-term training programs, 2002, Beijing Language and Culture University Press). The vocabulary covered in the two volumes ranges from the vocabulary of Level A to that of Level B with some practical new words included also. The words beyond Levels A and B account for no more than 15 percent of the total vocabulary.

4. In accord with the syllabus for Levels A and B, most of the elementary grammar is covered in the books with an aim to serve the practical need of communication without trying to achieve the absolute completeness and systematicness. The explanations of grammar are concise and accurate and easy to understand.

5. The exercises provided in the books are closely related to the texts the usages of the words and grammar are designed with emphasis on practicability and the specific needs of students to help them internalize the knowledge they have learned.

6. The materials offered in the books may be a little more than what will be used in class. Thus, teachers have the flexibility to choose what they need according to the specific situation.

II. The stylistic layout

Volume 1 starts from the preparatory part, including some commonly used expressions and basic information on characters and phonetics, which should be learned carefully before going on to the later sections. There are 35 lessons in Volume 1 and 27 in Volume 2. Each has a vocabulary and a list of proper names as appendixes. Besides, an index of grammar is provided in Volume 2. Each lesson consists of the following parts:

1. Illustrations of the grammar points;

2. Text, including a short passage and a dialogue or dialogues;

3. Supplementary words and expressions, which are commonly used and closely related to the text. They are provided below the list of new words in each lesson in Volume 1, while example sentences and simple illustrations of the usages of the key words are supplied in each lesson in Volume 2;

4. Notes, which explain the cultural phenomenon introduced in the text and give necessary background information.

5. Grammar. About three grammatical points are taught in each lesson and explanations are translated into English.

6. 1,000 words and expressions including proper names are listed in the vocabulary in Volume 1 and 800 in Volume 2.

III. Suggestions on how to use the books

Each of the two volumes may be completed in one semester of 20 weeks with 8 to 10 class periods per week. 5 to 6 class periods may be devoted to one lesson and flexibility should be allowed depending on the specific needs of students. More class periods could be given to the difficult lessons, while less to the easy ones.

Volume 1 was compiled by Rong Jihua with Wang Rui as the translator. The first draft of Volume 2 was done by Xu Guimei, and Chen Manhua completed the translation of the part of grammar and the revision of part of the volume. Cen Yuzhen and Wu Huihua made some suggestions on revising the first drafts of the two volumes. Their valuable contributions to the books are appreciated.

Suggestions and criticisms from the readers of the books are welcome.

The compilers

January, 2006

《初级汉语》编写说明

《初级汉语》是为初学汉语的外国人编写的基础汉语教材。全书分上、下两册,供一学年使用。

一、编写原则

1.编写的总原则:重视基础知识,立足于初学者,多角度地培养学生综合运用汉语的能力。通过上、下两册书的教学,使学生能认读2000个左右较为常用的词语,基本掌握初级阶段语法项目,并能运用这些知识进行交际。

2.重视内容的知识性与趣味性相结合,贴近学生的生活。为达到此目的,本教材一部分课文为自编,一部分为选用并改写报刊文章以及学生作文,语料具有鲜明的时代特征和实用性。

3.语言难度有计划地控制。以《汉语水平词汇与汉字等级大纲》(修订本,经济科学出版社,2001年)及《汉语水平等级标准与语法等级大纲》(高等教育出版社,1996年)为指南,同时参照《高等学校外国留学生汉语教学大纲(长期进修)》(北京语言大学出版社,2002年)。上、下册词汇基本控制在大纲的甲、乙级范围内,同时融进一些实用新词,为教材增加了活力。词汇的超纲率不超过15%。

4.语法点的设置基本涵盖初级阶段的语法项目,但又不追求绝对的完整性和系统性,大体与大纲的甲、乙级相吻合,同时讲究实效性,能满足本阶段的交际需求。

语法解释上尽量言简意赅、提纲挈领,追求针对性、准确性,而不求全、求细。如讲使用“把”字句的几个原则时,只讲有处置性特征和应有后续成分两点,而不介绍宾语的有定性,因为前两点对于学生能否正确造句的影响远远大于后者,而且可接受的程度比后者高。

5.练习注重针对性和实用性。课后的练习部分针对课文、词语用法、语法解释来设计练习题,以达到综合训练并使知识逐渐内化的目的。

6.教材的容量稍大一些。内容比实际使用的内容可能略多一点,这样方便教师根据不同情况灵活处理。

二、体例说明

上册的起始阶段设预备部分(主要是常用语、语音和汉字常识),需认真学习后再进入后面的学习阶段。上册35课,下册27课;两册都有生词总表和专名两个附录,下册还有语法索引。每一课的内容安排如下:

1.语法点示例。通过例句简明扼要地显示需要掌握的语法点。

2.课文。包括正课文和副课文。正课文为短文,副课文为对话。上册前25课的课文均附有对应拼音,26~35课及下册取消拼音,适当提高学习难度。

3.上册每课生词表后附有“补充词语”,所含内容是与本课密切相关的常用词语;下册每课设有“词语例释”,解说简单,通过例句来显示该词的用法,增强学生的语感。

4.注释。对课文中的文化现象及背景知识等进行简单的说明、解释。

5.语法。每课设有3个左右语法点,并附有英文翻译。

6.上册生词总表收录词语约l,l 00个(含专名),下册约800个(含专名)

三、使用建议

上、下两册各可用一个学期的时间(20周,每周8~10课时,50分钟为11课时)学完。原则上每课书可用5~6课时,但可以有一定的灵活性。有的课难度和容量较大,可适当增加课时;反之,可酌情减少。此外,下册练习一般只围绕本课语法点进行,所以建议教师开始新课前,对前面的语法点先进行回顾、复习。



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